[Rank domain or page? Which one is easier and better? I can’t figure out the difference, but there is a lot of people that say its better to rank for a page?]
I think it really varies based on each website.
Each page has a purpose and the purpose of the homepage can differ based on the type of website. For example, it would be foolish to rank Wikipedia homepage as a priority over the individual internal pages. Likewise, it doesn’t make sense to optimize the homepage of a product catalog, that carries thousands of different products, forcing the user to find the product page without the aid of the search engine. I’m mean really, should Amazon focus all their ranking power on their homepage?
Search engines do not rank domains, they rank individual web documents, based on the URL. Each individual URL holds the potential to rank for one or more keywords, based on the attributes of that page.
Folks who think they are ranking a domain are simply ranking the default page that is displayed at the domain root. It is still an individual page, not domain, or site that is being ranked.
Each page of your website can, and most should be optimized for search engine placement.
When search engine bots visit the root domain URL they download the content of the default page and evaluate that content as the content for that individual URL. They analyze the content found at that individual URL along with signals from the link graph that point to that same URL to score the page for each highly relevant keyword associated with that content.